Small intestinal and colonic epithelial cells. SI: Small intestine; C: Colon.

Small intestinal and colonic epithelial cells. SI: Small intestine; C: Colon. (PDF)Author ContributionsObtained funding and supervised the study: RAB SR. Conceived and designed the experiments: JMeng SR. Performed the experiments: JMeng HY JW. Analyzed the data: JMa SB JMeng. Contributed reagents/ materials/analysis tools: RC RAB. Wrote the paper: JMeng.AcknowledgmentsWe are grateful to Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory and Anatomic Pathology Research Laboratory at University of Minnesota for technical assistance.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a vital organelle involved in secretory and membrane protein biosynthesis. When the homeostasis in the ER lumen is perturbed such that an accumulation of unfolded, misfolded or aggregated proteins occurs this creates a state of ER stress. Eukaryotic cells relieve this stress by inducing the unfolded protein response (UPR), which attempts to restore and maintain normal ER homeostasis and function [1]. If the UPR fails to relieve ER stress apoptosis 1418741-86-2 pathways can be initiated [2]. ER stress has been associated with various pathological conditions such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, neurodegenerative disorders, among others [3,4,5,6,7]. In mammalian cells three principal, ubiquitously Alprenolol chemical information expressed ER stress sensors; PKR-like ER kinase (PERK), inositol-requiring enzyme 1a (IRE1a) and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) mediate the UPR [8,9]. Once activated these proteins transduce signals that lead to a transient inhibition in protein translation and transcriptional increases of ER chaperones and degradation components in an attempt to increase protein folding and eliminate misfolded proteins. In addition to the three main ER stress sensors, additional proteins related to ATF6 such as Old Astrocyte SpecificallyInduced Substance (OASIS) (also named CREB3L1) are expressed in certain cell types [10,11,12]. Similar to ATF6, OASIS is a type II membrane protein with a cytoplasmic N-terminal transcription factor domain and an ER luminal C-terminal domain. OASIS mRNA was first found to be induced in long-term cultured astrocytes and in response to cryo-injury in the mouse cerebral 1655472 cortex [13]. Subsequent studies found that OASIS mRNA is expressed in a variety of human tissues with predominant expression in pancreas and prostate [14]. More recent studies have shown that OASIS may have a role in differentiation and development of odontoblasts, osteoblasts and pancreatic b-cells [15,16,17,18,19]. Imaizumi and colleagues were the first to identify that OASIS is an ER stress transducer that translocates from the ER to the Golgi upon ER stress, where it is cleaved by regulated intramembrane proteolysis to release a cytosolic fragment that translocates to nucleus to bind CRE and ERSE (ER stress responsive element) DNA elements [20,21]. OASIS overexpressed in rat astrocytes up-regulates the expression of GRP78 chaperone, indicating that it may contribute to induction of the UPR [20]. However, OASIS induces the expression of other genes such as extracellular matrix components rather than typicalOASIS in Human Glioma CellsER stress response genes in osteoblasts [16] and pancreatic b-cells [18]. ER stress has been shown to occur in cancer cells potentially due to the hypoxic conditions experienced by cancer cells in vivo 26001275 [22] and the ER stress response has been suggested to be a potential pathway that can be pharmacologically exploited to induce apoptosis in gliomas [23]. The extracellular matrix has been implicated i.Small intestinal and colonic epithelial cells. SI: Small intestine; C: Colon. (PDF)Author ContributionsObtained funding and supervised the study: RAB SR. Conceived and designed the experiments: JMeng SR. Performed the experiments: JMeng HY JW. Analyzed the data: JMa SB JMeng. Contributed reagents/ materials/analysis tools: RC RAB. Wrote the paper: JMeng.AcknowledgmentsWe are grateful to Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory and Anatomic Pathology Research Laboratory at University of Minnesota for technical assistance.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a vital organelle involved in secretory and membrane protein biosynthesis. When the homeostasis in the ER lumen is perturbed such that an accumulation of unfolded, misfolded or aggregated proteins occurs this creates a state of ER stress. Eukaryotic cells relieve this stress by inducing the unfolded protein response (UPR), which attempts to restore and maintain normal ER homeostasis and function [1]. If the UPR fails to relieve ER stress apoptosis pathways can be initiated [2]. ER stress has been associated with various pathological conditions such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, neurodegenerative disorders, among others [3,4,5,6,7]. In mammalian cells three principal, ubiquitously expressed ER stress sensors; PKR-like ER kinase (PERK), inositol-requiring enzyme 1a (IRE1a) and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) mediate the UPR [8,9]. Once activated these proteins transduce signals that lead to a transient inhibition in protein translation and transcriptional increases of ER chaperones and degradation components in an attempt to increase protein folding and eliminate misfolded proteins. In addition to the three main ER stress sensors, additional proteins related to ATF6 such as Old Astrocyte SpecificallyInduced Substance (OASIS) (also named CREB3L1) are expressed in certain cell types [10,11,12]. Similar to ATF6, OASIS is a type II membrane protein with a cytoplasmic N-terminal transcription factor domain and an ER luminal C-terminal domain. OASIS mRNA was first found to be induced in long-term cultured astrocytes and in response to cryo-injury in the mouse cerebral 1655472 cortex [13]. Subsequent studies found that OASIS mRNA is expressed in a variety of human tissues with predominant expression in pancreas and prostate [14]. More recent studies have shown that OASIS may have a role in differentiation and development of odontoblasts, osteoblasts and pancreatic b-cells [15,16,17,18,19]. Imaizumi and colleagues were the first to identify that OASIS is an ER stress transducer that translocates from the ER to the Golgi upon ER stress, where it is cleaved by regulated intramembrane proteolysis to release a cytosolic fragment that translocates to nucleus to bind CRE and ERSE (ER stress responsive element) DNA elements [20,21]. OASIS overexpressed in rat astrocytes up-regulates the expression of GRP78 chaperone, indicating that it may contribute to induction of the UPR [20]. However, OASIS induces the expression of other genes such as extracellular matrix components rather than typicalOASIS in Human Glioma CellsER stress response genes in osteoblasts [16] and pancreatic b-cells [18]. ER stress has been shown to occur in cancer cells potentially due to the hypoxic conditions experienced by cancer cells in vivo 26001275 [22] and the ER stress response has been suggested to be a potential pathway that can be pharmacologically exploited to induce apoptosis in gliomas [23]. The extracellular matrix has been implicated i.

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